From the Gazeta de Lisboa to the Diário da República
The first edition of the Gazeta de Lisboa [Lisbon Gazette] dates back to 1715. The gazette was thus designated from # 2 onwards; # 1 was published under the title Notícia dos Estados: História Anual, Cronológica e Política do Mundo e Especialmente da Europa [News of the States: Annual Chronological and Political History of the World and Particularly of Europe].
From 1718 to 1741, the official gazette takes the name Gazeta de LisboaOcidental [Western Lisbon Gazette], and then back to Gazeta de Lisboa. Between 1762 and 1778, it was suspended by order of the Prime Minister, the Marquis of Pombal.
Since 1778, the official gazette has been continuously published (with but a short interruption during the period 1803-1814) by the national printing company – Impressão Régia until 1820; and Imprensa Nacional from them on.
Between September 16 and December 31, 1820, the Gazeta de Lisboa and the Gazeta do Governo were merged into a single journal. From January 1, to February 10 of 1821 it was named Diário do Governo [Government Daily].
Since then, as a reflection of the troubled times the country was going through, the official gazette was given numerous different designations:
Diário da Regência [Regency Journal] (from February 12 to July 4, 1821);
Diário do Governo [Government Journal] (from July 5, 1821 to June 4, 1823);
Gazeta de Lisboa [Lisbon Gazette] (from June 5, 1823 to July 24, 1833);
Crónica Constitucional de Lisboa [Lisbon Constitutional Chronicle] which was shortened to Crónica de Lisboa [Lisbon Chronicle] (from July 25, 1833 to June 30, 1834);
Gazeta Oficial do Governo [Official Gazette of the Government] (from July 1 to October 4, 1834);
Gazeta do Governo [Government Gazette] (from October 6 to December 31, 1834);
Diário do Governo [Government Journal] (from January 1, 1835 to December 31, 1859);
Diário de Lisboa [Lisbon Journal] (from January 1, 1860 to December 31, 1868);
Diário do Governo [Government Journal] (from January 1, 1869 to April 9, 1976);
Diário da República [Journal of the Republic] (since April 10, 1976).
Gazeta de Lisboa - 1718
History of National Printing Company
INCM is the result of the merger in 1972 of the National Printing Company and the national Mint. Due to the long history of the companies that originated it, INCM is heir to the two oldest industrial establishments in the country.
Descendant of the Royal Printing Company
It all started with the acquisition of the typographical workshop of Miguel Manescal da Costa and of the palace of D. Fernando Soares de Noronha in the exact same place where Imprensa Nacional still stands, on Rua da Imprensa Nacional, in Lisbon.
Location of the Imprensa Nacional in a tile panel representing Lisbon before the 1755 earthquake
Charter of December 24, 1768
The Impressão Régia [Royal Printing Company] – also called Régia Oficina Tipográfica [Royal Typographic Workshop] – was created by charter of December 24, 1768, and incorporated the factory of characters that had been founded in 1732 by Jean de Villeneuve, a Frenchman who had been called to Portugal by King João V to teach his art and to continue "the teaching of apprentices of the same factory of letters, so that the kingdom will not lack the teachers of this useful art".
In July of 1769, the Imprensa Régia incorporated the Playing Card and Cardboard Factory and took on the monopoly of manufacture and sale of playing cards in the "kingdom and conquests" which became one of the royal printing company's main sources of income until 1832.Joaquim Carneiro da Silva
1st Catalog of Types of the Impressão Régia
Under the direction of a Board of three members, the Royal printing company began operating in an area of Lisbon in full industrial development after the 1755 earthquake. Only in 1833 did the Impressão Régia get its present name of Imprensa Nacional.
The old building was considered inadequate for the needs of a factory in continuous development. Demolition started in 1895, and by 1913 a new building had taken its place on the exact same location. Though having been subject to significant adjustments, the second building still stands, as a rare example of industrial longevity.
Model of the old building of the National Press 1768 - 1895
Model of the current building of the National Press
From 1801 until 1810, the economic and administrative board of the royal printing company was assisted by a literary board composed of four royal teachers, who decided on the works to be published. Until 1833, Imprensa Nacional was entrusted the mission of continuing the printing of all books and works received from the Casa Litteraria do Arco do Cego.
Modernization and international recognition
Technological modernization placed Imprensa Nacional at the level of its European counterparts. Proof of this are the prizes it was awarded in the national and international exhibitions London 1862, Porto 1865, Paris 1867, Vienna 1873, Philadelphia 1876, Paris 1878, Rio de Janeiro 1879, Paris 1889 and 1900.
In 1910, with the advent of the Republic, Luis Derouet took office as Director General, later murdered at the door of the building in 1927 by an unemployed typographer. It was during his administration that the National Press experienced a remarkable cultural development (organized conferences and exhibitions and inaugurated the Library room in 1923) and social (Cooperativa A Pensionista, in 1913, Widow and Orphan Aid Box, in 1918, and the Mutual Pension Fund, in 1923).
The second centenary
For 200 years, Imprensa Nacional was continuously modernized and adapted to the new technologies and market needs. In 1969, by Decree-Law no. 49476, of December 30, Imprensa Nacional turned into an autonomous company, though still owned by the State. In July 1972, the national printing company merged with the Mint.
Throughout its existence, alongside with publishing the official gazette, the Imprensa Nacional also edited and printed works of a literary, artistic or scientific nature by classical or living authors, both Portuguese and foreign, reports and speeches, and printed papers designated in the eighteenth century as 'flying papers', e.g. forms for administrative use.
Renowned for the art of engraving, the national printing company comprehended a school of typographic composition, founded in the mid-nineteenth century, where some of the most outstanding graphic arts professionals studied, as was the mission entrusted to it by the Marquis of Pombal of "animating the letters and promoting an impression useful to the public for its productions, and worthy of the capital of these kingdoms."